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IN THIS ISSUE:
Heard on the Net
Broadband in the UK -
Focus on the TV
The Broadband Revolution
What about South Korea?
Broadband Home Fall 2000
Oct 3-5, Burlingame, CA
pulver.com 2000 Calendar
Randy Schriewer has joined Broadband Gateways, Inc. as the company's Chief Financial Officer. Randy was previously Senior VP and CFO at CyBerCorp. ( www.broadbandgateways.com )
Christopher Kersey, formerly of Menlo Ventures, has joined Blueprint Ventures as the firm's newest General Partner, joining founding General Partners Thomas Unterberg and Bart Schachter. ( www.blueprintventures.com )
Meredith Flynn-Ripley has joined Into Networks as chief operating officer. Previously Meredith served as vice president of corporate development at Road Runner. Paul Almquist, formerly with Global Crossing, has also joined the company, in the role of vice president of operations. ( www.intonet.com )
Malibu Networks, announced Douglas Hill has joined the company as vice president of marketing. Hill previously was a VP at Alcatel and co-founder of Xylan. ( www.malibunetworks.com )
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Verizon and Northpoint will merge their DSL businesses, creating a "new" Northpoint addressing consumer, business and ISP broadband customers. The new Northpoint will include Verizon's existing DSL business and an $800 million cash investment by Verizon. Verizon will own 55% of the new Northpoint. (www.northpoint.net) ( www.verizon.com )
Chello and Excite@Home's international unit agreed to merge, creating a high-speed ISP serving 15 countries and 300,000 subscribers. The merged company will be called Excite Chello. Liberty Media Group is investing 200 millio euros in the merged company. (www.chello.com) (www.excitehome.net)
Time Warner has announced a preliminary agreement with Juno to offer Juno's Internet access over T-W's cable broadband lines. The technical trial with 100 cable modem users also involves Road Runner and AOL service, but is expected to include other independent ISPs. The parties have declined to say how they will share the subscription fees from high-speed Juno Express online service. Juno is also involved in testing multiple ISP carriage with AT&T in their Boulder, Colorado system. (www.juno.com) ( www.timewarner.com )
Our nominee for advertising tag line of the month goes to Internetlogix Inc. It recently announced that its incubated company ETEMS Networks launched its "Instant Gratification To The Last Mile" campaign. The firm is in stealth mode and is starting its first round of funding. A note from the parent company's co- president indicated that ETEMS stands for Electronically Transformed Encrypted Media System/Signature ( www.etems.com )
3Com continues its focus on the digital home by taking an undisclosed equity stake in Zayante, a company focused exclusively on IEEE 1394 technology. The two companies plan to collaborate on deploying 1394 technology in future 3Com high-speed home networking solutions. In other 3Com news, they agreed to acquire Kerbango, developer of a standalone Internet radio, radio tuning system and radio Web site. ( www.3com.com ) (www.zayante.com) ( www.kerbango.com )
WorldGate Communications Inc. announced multi-year agreements with Adelphia, Comcast and Cox and extension of their agreement with Charter Communications, for the digital deployment of the WorldGate Service "to a predetermined number of households." Along with the deployment agreements, the cable operating companies will also make investments in WorldGate totaling $24.5 million. Each investing company will also earn warrants for the distribution of WorldGate Services beyond the initial commitments. WorldGate also announced the formation of a separate joint venture with the four MSOs, called TVGatewaySM. ( www.wgate.com )
Cox Communications has announced the selection of Into Networks for offering streaming software to Cox Communications' high-speed Internet access customers. Initial deployments are planned this summer in four markets. ( www.intonet.com ) ( www.cox.com )
The Polaris Venture Capital Fund invested $5 million in startup SerCoNet. SerCoNet specializes in the smart home networking market. This is the second round of capital raising for the Company. ( www.polarisventures.com )
Centillium Communications agreed to purchase Avio Digital, a company focused on creating home networking technology. Avio Digital's MediaWire (tm) technology uses a common connection to share 100 Mbps of multimedia information throughout the house. ( www.centillium.com ) ( www.aviodigital.com )
AT&T Broadband and RespondTV announced AT&T's plans to use infrastructure and services from RespondTV to support interactive television applications. RespondTV also announced an investment from Liberty Digital, joining previously announced investors AT&T, Comcast, GE Capital, Showtime Networks, Tribune Ventures and United Television. ( www.att.com ) ( www.respondtv.com )
AT&T Wireless and Motorola signed an agreement to develop, trial and license AT&T Wireless' fixed wireless digital broadband technology ("Project Angel"). AT&T will provide Motorola with a temporary license to supply equipment to local service providers outside the United States. The equipment will eventually serve as a competitive local communications infrastructure in international markets. Trial locations for deployment of the services will be announced during the third quarter of this year. ( www.attws.com ) ( www.motorola.com )
Lucent is acquiring Spring Tide Networks in a transaction valued at about $1.3 billion. Spring Tide provides network switching equipment that allows service providers to offer IP services such as VPNs. ( www.lucent.com ) ( www.springtidenet.com )
Industry News and Initiatives
BT, France Telecom and Qwest Communications announced the formation of the FS-VDSL International Committee to accelerate commercial deployment of Full-Service Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line technology, which enables the delivery of fully digital video programming, high-speed data and voice services over traditional phone lines. ( www.bt.com ) ( www.qwest.com ) ( www.francetelecom.com )
The cable industry's rollout of advanced services is being slowed by shortages of digital set-tops. The shortage is a thorny problem for cable operators trying to meet the aggressive competition coming from the direct-to-home satellite market. The shortages are affecting cable operators such as Insight and Cox in the U.S. and Telewest in the UK. Telewest's stock price has been hit as the company disclosed the delays in their digital television rollout.
DSL service providers, manufacturers and system integrators announced the OpenDSL initiative. Its goal is to simplify and expedite DSL installation and to make the equipment fully interoperable. The goal of the initiative is to remove the impediments to customer self-installation and thereby accelerate the speed with which DSL market penetration will occur. ( www.opendsl.org )
The Wireless DSL Consortium (WDC) has been formed to create and advance broadband wireless standards. The group, formed by six technology suppliers, has the goal of speeding deployment of broadband wireless services. Both this effort and the OpenDSL initiative mentioned above seem to take their lead from the very successful standardization and interoperability efforts led by Cablelabs in creating standards-based, interoperable cable modem equipment. ( www.wdslconsortium.com )
We found the UK rather disorienting at first. We thought it might be all the time we had just spent in Stockholm (see BBHR 6/27/2000), or the companies we selected to visit. But after visiting five companies and talking with lots of people, we concluded that broadband in the UK is different.
We've heard many people claim that the TV will replace the PC as the primary interactive platform in the home. We've always believed that the TV would work very well for some services (like selecting and watching movies) and reasonably well for others (like playing games with the family or choosing a travel destination).
But we have never felt that the TV is the appropriate primary vehicle for applications like directed Internet searching, email, home banking, and personal productivity. In the US, where a majority of homes have PCs and many already have more than one, we believe the "smart TV" will play a role in the broadband home, but it will be as one of many "smart appliances" -- very much including PCs -- each suitable to the particular room and application.
We were therefore taken aback and rather skeptical when we arrived in the UK and found nearly everyone we talked with -- all seemingly sensible and thoughtful people -- taking positions we were inclined to dismiss. By the time we left, we'd gained a better understanding of their position and became more intrigued to find out how consumers will vote with their actions.
It isn't clear whether broadband in the UK is going to develop in a very different way, or whether it will just take a different path to the same endpoint. What is clear is that many of the assumptions we brought along were challenged, and we came away from the UK with a better appreciation for the differences as well as the similarities in the global development of broadband.
Some key observations about the UK as compared with the US and Sweden:
Internet use by politicians provides a good example of the early stages of Internet awareness. While we were visiting the UK, The Economist published an article ("Cyber Soapboxes" 6/24/2000) which observed "Compared with the smooth and glitzy sites of American congressmen, those of British politicians are shoddy." As an example, it pointed to the official website for William Hague (leader of the opposition) which "contains just 11 words and one picture" (actually one graphic - see www.williamhague.org.uk).
BT's ADSL Offerings
British Telecom's "BTopenworld" consumer ADSL offering seems designed to discourage the broadband home. Launched in July 2000, it provides data rates "up to 500 kbps" for a single connected PC and is priced at 39.99 pounds per month (about $60 US). Connecting multiple PCs requires a premium service priced at 99.99 pounds per month (about $150 US).
By contrast, typical US cable modem and ADSL offerings provide 1.5 Mbps for $35 to $40 per month for the first PC and $10 for each additional PC. In Sweden, B2 offers 10 Mbps symmetrical service for 200 Swedish crowns (about $25) a month and permits the user to attach additional PCs at no extra charge (see BBHR 6/27/2000 for more on B2).
In spite of these deficiencies, there is sufficient pent-up demand for broadband access that BT claims to have a backlog of over 100,000 orders. Since the launch of the single PC service has been delayed until "late summer" (only the multi-PC service is available at this writing), and customer installation requires an on-site visit, it will take some time before orders will be filled. Patience in queues -- reputed to be an English virtue -- will be sorely tested.
UK observers blame both the British government and BT for the tardy, expensive and slow broadband offerings. They feel that the government has allowed BT to exploit its local-service monopoly and inhibit the growth of true broadband to avoid the loss of revenue from its private-line services.
Most feel that the UK broadband market will not really start to develop until BT is forced to open up its local network to competition -- scheduled to start a year from now (July 2001). ( www.btopenworld.com/ )
One major explanation for the TV focus in the UK is the widespread availability and use of teletext. Our US readers may not be aware that free text-based information services have been available on every UK TV channel and built into most TV sets since the early 1980s. Every TV remote control has a "text" button and colored navigation buttons, and there are thousands of pages of information, including up-to-date news, weather and sports.
Teletext is carried in an unused portion of the TV signal (the "vertical blanking interval" or VBI). It was developed by the BBC and ITV engineering teams and was launched in the mid 1970s. Penetration reached one million TV sets by the early 1980s and is now simply taken for granted as an auxiliary text channel with every terrestrial broadcast and satellite station. (For a history of UK teletext visit http://www.mb21.co.uk/teletext/features/ ).
Many other countries followed the UK model and deployed similar teletext systems, such as Antiope in France. An effort in the early 1980s to establish teletext services in the US was doomed by an "enhanced" technical standard which proved overly expensive to implement.
Compared to the Web, teletext pages are clunky since they are all low-resolution text. Because pages as carried as a one-way "carousel" in the VBI, there is a considerable delay between a request for a new page and the start of screen painting. On the other hand, the service is in millions of households and comparatively easy to use. And there's no need to boot up the PC and wait for a modem to connect to an ISP.
Teletext clearly fills some of the niches now occupied in the US by the Web and AOL. The widespread perception of the success of teletext, and its natural evolution into "interactive television", makes the notion of the TV as the primary interactive device more plausible than we first thought.
KPMG Broadband Practice
Our first visit in the UK was with Flann Horgan at KPMG, the global accounting and consulting firm. KPMG recently established its Broadband Practice to focus its resources on broadband opportunities. The practice has been in operation for about 6 months, has about 80 people, and is conveniently based next to Heathrow Airport.
The KPMG Broadband Practice is working with large clients preparing to roll out advanced services such as TV-based Web browsing, electronic program guides, video on demand, and voice over IP. Some clients are working with cable, others with DSL.
While we were there, KPMG was preparing to launch its new "Broadband Solutions Center" which is a "fast configure test lab" for KPMG's broadband clients. It includes a digital TV headend, both cable and ADSL broadband access environments, Voice over IP, and video on demand (VOD) servers. The lab is focused on the TV to meet the needs of its European clients.
Flann provided a very good background briefing on the situation in the UK, and provided a good introduction to the "TV-centric" view. As we expressed our skepticism about these views, which tend to ignore the PC or to relegate it to a secondary position, he suggested other companies and people to talk with. (www.kpmg.co.uk)
Two-Way TV Ltd. - "Play-along" games and sports
We visited Two-Way TV Ltd. (TWTV) at its London headquarters and met with Marjorie Curtis (Head of Corporate Marketing) and Heidi Bruckland (Press Officer). TWTV has been developing its approach to interactive television since it was founded in 1992, and is now operating over digital cable in the UK.
It's hard to imagine a service more different from what we take for granted. TWTV's services are at the opposite end of the spectrum from teletext (or much of the Web, for that matter). They are all about high-energy real-time interaction with the program on the TV screen. These are currently organized into two strands - game shows and quizzes, and sports:
To be frank, we really didn't "get it" since we're neither quiz show fans nor sports addicts. We can't imagine finding such a service compelling, but we know better than to put ourselves in others shoes when judging customer response to applications.
TWTV says that their field trial had very high usage "pushing up the rating of shows supported by Two Way TV by an average of 70%". They believe these approaches will be very successful as digital services roll out in the UK and other countries, and they bring almost a decade of experience in developing applications which appeal to viewer's competitive instincts to pull people into interacting with live TV content. As they launch their service, they plan to expand from "play-along games" to full enhanced television.
The wait for digital television explains much of the company's long development cycle. With digital services finally rolling out worldwide over terrestrial, cable and satellite platforms, the company is confident that it understands how to attract and keep interactive users.
Interactive TV applications linked to real-time TV programming depend on the presence of "triggers" -- "cues" carried in the program stream indicating the occurrence of an action such as a score in sports or the answer to a quiz question. In the absence of standards, pioneering interactive TV services have employed proprietary technologies for trigger insertion. Widespread deployment over a wide range of TV programs, set-top boxes and interactive applications depends on industry agreement and broadcaster adoption of "trigger" standards. The Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF) and the ATV Forum (ATVF) have been working to define and deploy such standards. ( www.atvef.com ) ( www.atvf.org )
Two-Way TV recently launched its service over portions of the Cable and Wireless cable system in the UK (now part of NTL - see write-up below) and is due to expand its launch and add the Telewest network later in the year. It has established a joint venture for the US and Canada, and another for Australia. It is working to integrate its technologies with the digital set-top platforms provided by Liberate, Microsoft, and Open TV.
We'll watch closely and report as Two Way TV's services roll out this year and next. (www.twowaytv.com)
Yes Television - VOD and Internet over cable and ADSL
We visited Yes Television at the "company flat" in the Chiswick section of West London, so we could see the live service they are operating as a pilot market trial with BT. Steve Garvey, Yes Television Head of Marketing, demonstrated the services and shared his thoughts on the company's current work and future plans.
Their co-branded "BT Yes Television" service has true video on demand (VOD), email and open Internet access. The system operates through a digital set-top box to the customer's TV, and uses an ADSL modem carrying MPEG-coded video at 2.3 Mbps over TCP/IP (similar to a VOD trial in the early 1990s by Bell Atlantic).
The BT Yes Television pilot, available in two sections of West London, is intended to reach 400 homes, and is scheduled to run "until at least the end of September." Their attractive VOD service includes a wide range of films, TV hits, and music videos, well packaged in a slick magazine-format guide. Pricing is 15 pounds (about $23) per month for the "basic" service, and 20 pounds (about $30) for the "Entertainment Package" which includes two movies a month. Current movie titles are 3 pounds (about $4.50) each.
Unfortunately, BT's ADSL pricing structure puts the economics of this business wildly out of whack. YesTV can't scale up the business when the costs for providing the service (mostly payments to BT) far exceed what it is charging for it.
Full-screen television requires at least 2 Mbps for reasonable "VCR-like" quality. BT has been loath to offer a consumer-priced ADSL service at this speed for fear of cannibalizing its revenue from E1 private line services. Until competition forces a radical downward revision in ADSL pricing, and an upward revision in speed, it will not be economically feasible to offer VOD over ADSL in the UK. Most UK observers believe that this will not happen until the UK market is opened to competition during the summer of 2001. Thus the trial is mainly for Yes Television and BT to gather marketing information on usage and pricing, not in preparation for a near-term service rollout.
With much of its home market effectively blocked by BT's ADSL pricing, Yes Television is targeting other markets. It recently announced plans to offer its "Total Television" product (which adds broadcast TV to the VOD and Internet services) in Ireland, Iceland, France, and the Nordic region. These will use a variety of broadband access technologies, including ADSL (at 2 to 5 mbps), cable, and fiber optics. Like many service providers, bundled services are the goal toward which Yes Television is moving. ( www.yestelevision.com )
Pace Micro Technology
We traveled to northern England to visit Pace at its headquarters in the historic Saltaire mill in Shipley, near Bradford and Leeds. We met with Jim Farmery (Strategic Business Development Manager) and Amanda David (Corporate Communications) to talk about digital set-top boxes and home gateways, Pace's focus.
Pace is the largest digital set-top manufacturer in Europe and one of the largest in the world. Pace provides digital set-tops for all distribution platforms (cable, satellite, terrestrial broadcast, MMDS and DSL) and entered the US market through deals with Time Warner Cable and BellSouth (the latter for MMDS "wireless cable").
The visit with Pace provided an opportunity to see the broadband space from the perspective of a thoughtful and technologically agile company focussed exclusively on the TV platform. We were told that work-at-home -- a major factor driving PC adoption and use in the US -- is much less important in the UK.
We learned that the TV-based teletext service is very popular in the UK, and has become an important eCommerce platform. While the BBC's CEEFAX service is all information, ITV's service is mainly eCommerce. Jim says that these services have been quite successful in conditioning the viewer to eCommerce on the TV. (Back in our hotel room, we picked up the remote control and looked at a service full of ads for discounted air fares and holidays abroad.) The "one-way" nature of teletext requires dialing "FreeFone" numbers (what in the US are called "toll-free" or "800" numbers) to place an order.
Pace believes that digital set-top-based services will be very popular in the UK, where digital TV services are already being delivered over satellite, cable, and terrestrial broadcast. Digital set-top boxes enable much richer services than those possible with older analog set-tops or teletext, with better graphics, HTML decoders, and "two-way" operation, making them a better eCommerce platform.
Pace also believes that the digital set-top box provides the natural gateway to connect PCs to broadband Internet access, and has boxes with built-in cable modems and gateway functions. These boxes have a USB port for connection to one or more PCs in the home.
To connect the gateway to PCs in other rooms, Pace is planning to use the DECT technology, rather than HomeRF or 802.11 as in the US. DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) was developed for cordless phones and is now being applied to local and wide area data communications. It can be produced at a lower cost since it is already embedded in millions of devices. It operates in a frequency band that is claimed to have less interference from other devices in the home. Although DECT runs at a lower speed than HomeRF or 802.11 (550 kbps compared with 2 to 11 Mbps), it's a good match for the initial cable modem services which will be about 500 kbps. ( www.dect.ch )
Utility companies are especially interested in exploiting the gateway to communicate with boilers, water heaters, and other equipment in the home. By monitoring the status of the equipment, the utilities can dispatch service by detecting deteriorating operation. This is expected to save money compared with dispatching on a predetermined cycle and usually finding nothing wrong. Thus utilities might be willing to subsidize at least part of the cost of the gateway and home network.
Pace is building digital set-tops with integrated hard disks. These provide "personal video recorder" functions similar to the TiVo and RePlayTV systems.
Finally, Pace has announced alliances with other hi-tech companies. They are working with Cisco to demonstrate future digital applications. They announced in May a broad agreement to cooperate with Microsoft on the evolution of digital television, combining the Microsoft TV Platform client software with Pace's digital set-top technology.
We left our meeting less skeptical about the TV as a platform for broadband services -- but still waiting to see the realities in the marketplace. ( www.pacemicro.com )
(Postscript: Fans of David Hockney's art should be sure to visit the gallery in the Saltaire mill and see the fabulous Hockney collection there!)
ntl, the biggest UK cable operator - with interests well beyond cable and beyond the UK - was our last visit. Back in London, we met for several hours with Jack Lang, ntl's Chief Technologist.
ntl is a US-owned company headquartered in the UK. It offers television, telephone, and Internet access services. It recently acquired the consumer division of Cable & Wireless Communications to give it a total of 3 million cable subscribers in the UK, and owns part or all of cable operators in Switzerland, Ireland and Australia. Earlier this year, ntl took a 25% stake in Bredbandsbolaget (B2), the Swedish ISP we wrote up in last month's issue; and just this week formed a partnership to purchase half of France Telecom's stake in Noos, a leading French broadband provider.
ntl is also deeply involved in the roll out of digital terrestrial television (DTTV) in the UK. It designed and operates the transmission facilities for many DTTV broadcasters, and is rolling out interactive DTTV. DTTV has the advantage of widespread availability, extending a video operator's reach beyond areas where it owns physical distribution plant. Since DTTV uses new set-top boxes, it gives the operator the benefit of not having to cope with the wide variety of legacy set-top equipment in consumer homes.
We spent some time discussing the respective roles of the PC and the TV, and Jack used a video to demonstrate interactive TV as envisioned by ntl. In addition to the "play-along" interaction we had seen at Two-Way TV, we also saw instant replay (based on a built-in hard drive along the PVR model); obtaining information about teams and players; prediction of game winners and top players, with recognition and prizes for the winners; and "T-commerce" buying opportunities linked to the content. Seeing all of these brought together in a well-produced video made its appeal more plausible.
There are many participants in delivering interactivity as shown in the ntl video. Examples could include the sports team, a merchant who provides the jerseys being sold, a transmission provider, etc. This led to a discussion of "triggers" in TV content and the issues of control and monetizing the transactions that occur. Jack felt that proprietary trigger techniques need to give way to standards, and that convergence on industry-wide standards based on ATVEF was important for the success of any interactive TV linked to program content.
Jack described a realistic scenario for convergence on the TV platform. As Jack described it, "Johnny's bedroom" has a TV connected to an advanced digital set-top with functionality similar to a PC. Johnny can watch TV, play games, browse the Web, chat with his friends, and do his homework.
We observed that we'd be much more enthusiastic about this "convergence" solution if the digital set-top had not just "functionality similar to a PC" but if it included a full Win32 interface capable of running PC applications. Jack acknowledged that this was one of the approaches under consideration. ( www.ntl.com )
We hope that by the time we next visit the UK, many of the services will have rolled out and statistics on adoption rates and usage will be available. How consumers vote with their time and their money will be the yardstick by which we'll really be able to gauge the success of the UK model.
Readers of our May issue may recall the dialog started by a reader in Sweden about where the broadband revolution will start. One contender is the US; another is Sweden (covered in our 6/27/2000 report).
South Korea had not much been on our radar screen until we saw two recent news releases. The first was about Korea Thrunet which in July added almost 60,000 subscribers, reaching a total of 470,992. Their service is based on cable networks.
The second article quoted monthly data from the country's Ministry of Information and Communications. It indicated that the number of South Korean broadband Internet users is more than 1.5 million, an increase of almost 40% in June. That brings broadband Internet penetration in South Korea to 12.5 percent of its 12 million households. There was a large jump in DSL-based service subscriptions, both from Hanaro Telecom and from Korea Telecom. Interestingly, DSL is somewhat ahead of cable in the number of South Korean broadband subscribers.
In the US, cable modem subscribers still outnumber those for DSL. Cable also led DSL in the number of customers signed up in the second quarter. However, the US gap between cable and DSL is narrowing as cable operators face equipment shortages and aggressive DSL pricing and roll-outs. ( www.thrunet.com ) ( www.mic.go.kr )
Broadband Home Fall 2000 - Oct 3-5, Burlingame, CA
The Broadband Home Fall 2000 Conference (BBH Fall 2000) will take place October 3-5 at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel in Burlingame, CA, near San Francisco airport. The conference will include a reception for delegates and participants on the evening of October 2nd. This will be a great place to take advantage of unique business and personal networking opportunities.
We've got a top-notch group of speakers and sessions shaping up. Building on the success of our June Broadband Home Summit, we've expanded the schedule to provide industry perspectives by senior executives and 24 break-out sessions. While other conferences discuss specific elements of broadband to and in the home, Broadband Home Fall 2000 will focus on making the pieces come together to create compelling applications.
Featured speakers and panelists come from broadband content, services and applications providers; all elements of the infrastructure including backbone and access networks; home gateways, networks, appliances and automation; venture capitalists and more.
The conference will include 16 industry perspectives given by thought leaders across all sectors of the Broadband Home industry, including
Seating for the conference is limited. If you are thinking about attending, we suggest that you register soon since Early Bird registration ends on August 18th. If you plan to attend and will require a hotel room, we strongly recommend that you make your hotel reservations today as we have only a limited number of rooms available.
Visit the conference Web site ( TheBroadbandHome.com/bbh2000 ) for the up-to-date conference schedule. Conference brochures, registration and hotel reservations are all available online through the website.
pulver.com 2000 Calendar - Upcoming conferences
Fall 2000 VON - Sept 11-14, Atlanta, GA ( www.pulver.com/von )
The pulver.com Wireless Internet Summit Oct 24-25, New York, NY ( www.pulver.com/wirelesssummit )
VON Asia 2000 - November 13-16, Hong Kong, China ( www.pulver.com/asia2000 )
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